05 January 2018

A Different X-DNA Inheritance Chart (by John Motzi)

John Motzi has developed an Excel X-DNA Inheritance Chart that includes only the ancestors who may have contributed to the X chromosome of a person. I have made this chart available on my website with John's permission.

The Excel file can be accessed directly at http://debbiewayne.com/presentations/dna/MotziJohn_Xinheritance_Ancestry_Chart.xlsx. There is also a link available from my QuickRef Links section at http://debbiewayne.com/pubs.php#quickref once you scroll down to the section with links to "Charts for X-DNA analysis by others." You can find John's email address there also if you wish to contact him about the chart.

Because the names of ancestors who could not have contributed to the X chromosome are eliminated, this may make more sense to some of us and make it easier to find common ancestors on the X lines. While my versions of the charts make sense to me, some of you may prefer John's version of the charts or the ones created by others that are also linked in my Quickref section.

All of us think a little differently and the same tool is not best for all. Try this out and see if it works better for you.




All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "A Different X-DNA Inheritance Chart," Deb's Delvings, 4 January 2018 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2018, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

Educating Ourselves and Protecting Our Right to Access DNA Data

A prestigious journal has an interesting article on access by individuals to his or her own genomic data. It may help fight the recent rash of news articles generating fear of DNA testing due to companies using our data for research.

Barbara J. Evans, "HIPAA’s Individual Right of Access to Genomic Data: Reconciling Safety and Civil Rights," The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 102, Issue 1, 5-10; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.12.004.

While the focus is on US laws and organizations, many of the general statements apply worldwide. Articles like this emphasize the importance of educating ourselves about the interpretation and meaning of DNA markers and our genes. We need to fight the perception that most of us will "make bad decisions that harm both [ourselves] and society" if we have access to our DNA data.

DNA education through teaching and writing has been my main focus in recent years. So many social media users seem to use posts as their main learning tool nowadays. It would be great if those answering questions included pointers to reputable resources where the person can learn more. Education is key to eliminating the perception that we are all dummies when it comes to DNA. Links to genetic genealogy articles and educational opportunities can be found here on my DNA bibliography which is updated as I learn of new resources.

Some key statements from the Evans article:
Although there are a range of bioethical perspectives on this question, there is a fairly broad consensus within the bioethics community that laypeople can be harmed by access to subclinical-quality genomic data.
...
A large cast of third parties potentially has access to your whole genome, while ethicists debate whether it is “information” you should have.
...
Like the right to vote, access to one’s own genomic data is a foundational civil right that empowers people to protect all their other civil rights, and HIPAA displaced states’ power to interfere with it.



All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.



To cite this blog post: Debbie Parker Wayne, "Educating Ourselves and Protecting Our Right to Access DNA Data," Deb's Delvings, 4 January 2018 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2018, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

24 November 2017

DNA Test Kit Sales

Soooo many sales on DNA test kits for genealogy now. Black Friday sales and low prices throughut the holiday season. Now is the time to test or order an upgrade.
Family Tree DNA (opinion: the only company that supports DNA Projects, no additional charges for access to company tools)

This is the testing company primarily used by members of the Texas State Genealogical Society's Early Texans DNA Project (see http://www.txsgs.org/programs/dna-project/early-texans/ for more info). Parker Y-DNA Surname Project and Parker FamGroup1 Family Finder Project are also at Family Tree DNA.

Black Friday Sale (ends 27 November 2017 at 11:59 PST) - Family Finder (autosomal DNA test) only $49 USD and standard shipping $4.95 USD per kit. After that time the kit price goes up to $59 with standard shipping, but that price is still a great deal! If you have tested elsewhere you can upload the data to Family Tree DNA for free and pay only $19 for access to premium analysis tools.

Ongoing sale prices include

New Test-takers
  • Family Finder + Y-37 $178 (males only) ($168 only on Black Friday)
  • Family Finder + Y-67 $278 (males only) ($268 only on Black Friday)
  • Family Finder + mtFull Sequence $218 ($208 only on Black Friday)
  • Family Finder + Y-67 + mtFull Sequence $442 (males only) ($427 only on Black Friday)
  • Y-37 $129 (males only)
  • Y-67 $229 (males only)
  • Y-111 $299 (males only)
  • mtDNA Plus $89
  • mtFull Sequence $169

Upgrades for those who have already tested
  • mtDNA to FullmtSequence $119
  • Y-12 to Y-37 $69
  • Y-25 to Y-37 $35
  • Y-37 to Y-67 $79
  • Y-37 to Y-111 $168
  • Y-67 to Y-111 $99
  • Big Y with free upgrade to Y-111 $475

Family Tree DNA customers also receive holiday coupons by logging in to your account and clicking on the "Holiday Reward" button. Each week a new coupon is offered. Many customers are sharing coupons they do not need on Facebook, mail lists, and in a shared Google Docs file at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1CgXRKz2TySvRqSInveSIYoslO7yexAc9d-BzpNhaY1c/edit#gid=1193411620.




AncestryDNA (opinion: a large database for matching relatives, but requires an annual subscription for access to all tools)

Ancestry DNA Kit is on sale for $59 and Ancestry.com subscription for first year is 50% Off. Starting 23 November at 9:00p.m. PST to 27 November 2017 at 8:59p.m. PST. (£49 DNA kit in UK, $79 DNA Kit in Canada, $99 DNA Kit in Australia)



MyHeritage/ (opinion: smaller database and waiting for DNA analysis tools and better algorithms for matching relatives)

$49 DNA Kit 21 November to 27 November (Normal price is $99). Free expedited shipping on orders of three or more kits (US only) and free standard shipping on two or more kits. MyHeritage also accepts free raw data uploads from other companies.



23andMe (opinion: the most health-related information to date)

Ancestry + Health is $99 today only at Amazon using the link
https://www.amazon.com/23andMe-DNA-Test-Ancestry-collection/dp/B01G7PYQTM/ref=sr_1_4_s_it?s=hpc&ie=UTF8&qid=1511536800&sr=1-4&keywords=23andme+dna+test+kit

Ancestry-only kits are $69 and Ancestry + Health is $149 through 26 November at 23andMe.




LivingDNA (opinion: no matching relatives yet, but gives very detailed British Isles admixture origins)

$89 Black Friday sale price. Sale price of $159 after Black Friday. $199 normal price kit.




National Geographic Genographic Project Geno 2.0 (opinion: for deep, ancient origins and to contribute to scientific research - no matching relatives)

Black Friday sale price $69 at https://shop.nationalgeographic.com/category/geno-dna?code=SR90002&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI77Pu4cLX1wIVDrXACh28EAomEAAYASAAEgICVfD_BwE (normally $199).


Disclaimer: I receive no compensation from any of these companies. I am a satisfied paying customer of all the companies included.


To cite this blog post: Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Test Kit Sales," Deb's Delvings, 24 November 2017 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

10 October 2017

Selected References for Math, Biology, and DNA Testing Company Algorithms and Features

My blog post on "DNA Analysis: Random is Most Important Factor" generated a discussion that resulted in some questions on where to find more about probability and the algorithms companies are using when analyzing our DNA data.

I have been working to update and merge my online DNA bibliography and the bibliography I provide to students attending the DNA courses at institutes, but it is still a work in progress. The following list is far from comprehensive, but lists some selected resources that provide useful information.

I tried to find public links for all of these, but some may require you to login to the website to access the papers. All URLs were accessed 10 October 2017.




Any Topic Related to Genetic Genealogy

Whenever I want to learn more about any topic related to genetic genealogy, I check the following sources first. These are all currently active and written by experienced genetic genealogists who also have scientific or engineering backgrounds.




Probability and Statistics




Biology and Genetics

Newer editions of these are available. I wanted it for the basics of biology and genetics so this older version covered everything I needed and was more economical.

  • Robert J. Brooker, Genetics: Analysis & Principles 4th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2012; https://www.amazon.com/Robert-J-Brooker-Genetics-Principles/dp/B008UBBDDY/)

  • Robert J. Brooker and Johnny El-Rady, Student Study Guide / Solutions Manual to accompany Genetics: Analysis & Principles 4th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2012; not available on Amazon when I checked recently).



23andMe




AncestryDNA




Family Tree DNA




MyHeritage


And, of course, I recommend the book that Blaine T. Bettinger and I co-authored:
Blaine T. Bettinger and Debbie Parker Wayne, Genetic Genealogy In Practice, published in September 2016 by the National Genealogical Society (NGS).


To order the print version, click here, then click the cover image on the displayed page or go directly to the online store. Price is $30.06 for NGS members, $36.05 for non-members. The print version is best for working the exercises.

For the Kindle version ($9.99), click here.

Note: As an author I receive royalties on sold copies of Genetic Genealogy In Practice. I receive no incentives from any other entities named in this post.



11 October 2017: Corrected spelling of the name of one author.

To cite this blog post: Debbie Parker Wayne, "Selected References for Math, Biology, and DNA Testing Company Algorithms and Features," Deb's Delvings, 10 October 2017 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

09 October 2017

DNA Analysis: Random is Most Important Factor

Correctly analyzing DNA matches for genetic genealogy is much harder than most researchers may think.

What is the most important thing to remember when interpreting DNA matches to determine relationships?


CC0 License, Debbie Parker Wayne, Random DNA Word Cloud

Researchers must remember that random recombination and mutations make it impossible to predict exactly how much DNA, if any, will be shared by two people, in general. The charts giving shared percentages of 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and so on are based on statistical probabilities. Real life seldom ever exactly matches a statistical probability. One exception is that each person does inherit one-half of the autosomal DNA from each parent.

Any reader of a mail list, forum, or Facebook will constantly see questions such as, "I share XYZ% of DNA with personXYZ. What relationship do we share?" And that reader will see tons of responses such as, "You must be XYZ relationship." The more savvy researchers will indicate there are several likely relationships and point to charts such as The Shared cM Project.1 There are also some tools, such as the matrices on GEDmatch.com and the relationship predictions made by the testing companies, that use the statistical shared percentages to predict relationships.

Researchers must remember to use these predictions only as clues and not as a hard-and-fast limit to accurately analyze DNA findings.

The first chart below uses GEDmatch matrix tools to demonstrate how even full siblings can share widely varying amounts of DNA with a DNA match. Four full siblings are compared to a known fourth cousin. One sibling shares only 12.4 cM of atDNA, one shares 19.8 cM, one shares 50.2 cM, and one shares 52.1 cM. The second chart shows that the GEDmatch generations matrix tool predicting the number of generations between the test-takers varies from 4 to over 7. (GEDmatch changes the order of the siblings in the different matrix views.)


© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne,
GEDmatch Shared atDNA Matrix, Siblings to 4C

>
© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne,
GEDmatch Generations Matrix, Siblings to 4C

Blaine published "The Shared cM Project" data using a Creative Commons License which gives permission for others to use and adapt the data as long as the adaptation is also made freely available and follows a few other restrictions.

Jonny Perl at DNA Painter adapted the data to create a Shared cM Project tool that highlights relationships that have been shown to share a specified amount of DNA. There are some differences in the highlighted relationships for 12.4 and 52.1 shared cM as shown in the images below.


CC0 License, Jonny Perl,
DNA Painter Shared cM Project Tool, Heading


CC0 License, Jonny Perl,
DNA Painter Shared cM Project Tool, 52.1 shared cM


CC0 License, Jonny Perl,
DNA Painter Shared cM Project Tool, 12.4 shared cM

The moral of the story is, as the Genetic Genealogy Standards indicate, there may be more than one way to interpret DNA test results:
19. Interpretation of DNA Test Results. Genealogists understand that there is frequently more than one possible interpretation of DNA test results. Sometimes, but not always, these possible explanations can be narrowed by additional testing and/or documentary genealogical research. Genealogists further understand that any analysis of DNA test results is necessarily dependent upon other information, including information from the tester, and that the analysis is only as reliable as the information upon which it is based.2


1. Blaine T. Bettinger, "The Shared cM Project," The Genetic Genealogist (https://thegeneticgenealogist.com/). Search the blog posts for the most recent update to the project.
2. Genetic Genealogy Standards Committee, Genetic Genealogy Standards(http://www.geneticgenealogystandards.com/).


To cite this blog post: Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Analysis: Random is Most Important Factor," Deb's Delvings, 9 October 2017 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

28 September 2017

DNA Analysis Consent Forms

Over the years there have been several discussions about sample consent forms a genealogist might use when asking a person to take a DNA test. Recently, Blaine T. Bettinger, The Genetic Genealogist, posted a sample beneficiary form on a Facebook group. Blaine's example and several others are linked from the ISOGG Wiki page on "Project consent forms."


Catkin, "Consent," CC0 Creative Commons License,
https://pixabay.com/en/agree-english-consent-contract-1728448/.

Blaine's form is specifically written to name a beneficiary to manage a DNA sample after the death of a DNA donor. Because Blaine assigned a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, others have permission to share and adapt the document. I have made two adaptations of Blaine's document.

The first adaptation is for use with my family members who take a DNA test: naming me as beneficiary to manage the kit after death of the test-taker, indicating preferences for sharing the information, whether a legal name or an alias should be used when sharing, ensuring the test-taker knows about the Genetic Genealogy Standards, and that I cannot ensure anonymity no matter how hard I work to do so. Blaine included space for a notary public to witness the signing of the document which would definitely give the document more standing if legal proceedings are ever involved. Most of the time when I am getting a sample from a family member we will not be able to easily access a notary. I changed this section to have two others present sign as witnesses; this is a more viable situation for most of us on a day-to-day basis. You will have to decide if you want a notarized document or if witnesses are an acceptable alternative if you want to do something similar.


jarmoluk, "form," CC0 Creative Commons License,
https://pixabay.com/en/control-work-official-form-427510/.

The second adaptation is for a project member indicating the same preferences and giving me permission to analyze their DNA test results, but not naming me as a beneficiary. No witnesses are requested for this document as I expect it will normally be provided to me through electronic means and I will not be present when the test-taker signs it.

Feel free to take these and adapt them further for your use. PDF and Word 2010 versions of both documents are available on my website Quick Reference Links.



To cite this blog post: Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Analysis Consent Forms," Deb's Delvings, 28 September 2017 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

16 September 2017

Further Your DNA Research and Help Hurricane Harvey Victims at the Same Time

Updated 5 October 2017: Much appreciation goes to Family Tree DNA and its customers who ordered kits in September. This banner on the website shows over thirty-five thousand dollars are being donated to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey. Thank you all.




Original post:

There are still two weeks during which you can help yourself and others at the same time.

Family Tree DNA is located in Houston, Texas, where many have lost homes, jobs, and everything they owned due to floods caused by Hurricane Harvey and the release of waters from the local reservoirs. For all sales and upgrades of DNA tests and paid data transfers made in September, Family Tree DNA is donating a portion of the proceeds toward Hurricane Harvey relief efforts. The banner on their home page today shows $14,882 has been collected so far. That is almost $1,000 per day!


Please consider ordering more DNA tests from Family Tree DNA before the end of September if you can do so. You win and you help the thousands and thousands of people who have been devastated by this disaster.


To cite this blog post: Debbie Parker Wayne, "Further Your DNA Research and Help Hurricane Harvey Victims at the Same Time," Deb's Delvings, 16 September 2017 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2017, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved